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Tigers And Communities: The Socio-Economic Impact Of Kanha Tiger Reserve

by Nimisha Tewari 16 Oct 2023

The Kanha Tiger Reserve in India is not only a sanctuary for wildlife but also closely intertwined with the local communities in the region. The harmonious relationship between people and wildlife in Kanha Tiger Reserve is a testament to effective conservation efforts and community involvement. Here's an explanation of this unique relationship:

Coexistence: The reserve is located in the Maikal Hills of the Satpura Range and covers a significant area. Many indigenous tribal communities, such as the Gond and Baiga, have resided in these forested areas for generations. These communities have a deep understanding of the land and its resources.The reserve recognizes this and has integrated their expertise into conservation strategies.


Sustainable Livelihoods: The local communities often depend on the forest for their livelihoods. Through community-based programs, they engage in sustainable activities like collecting minor forest produce, non-timber forest products, and eco-friendly agriculture. These practices allow them to generate income without harming the environment.

Eco-Tourism: Tourism has become a significant source of income for both the reserve and the local communities. Community-owned lodges and resorts have emerged, providing jobs and additional revenue. Eco-tourism not only sustains the livelihoods of the communities but also educates visitors about the importance of conservation. 

Protection from Poaching: The presence of local communities in and around the reserve acts as an added layer of protection against poaching and illegal activities. They serve as guardians of the forest, reporting any suspicious activities to the authorities.


Conservation Efforts: Recognizing the importance of these communities in conserving the forest, the reserve authorities have initiated several community-based conservation programs. These programs involve the local people in the protection and management of the forest. It's a win-win situation where communities benefit from sustainable practices, and the forest benefits from their active involvement in its conservation.

Challenges: However, there are challenges in balancing conservation and the well-being of local communities. For instance, wildlife can sometimes damage crops, leading to conflicts. Addressing these challenges while ensuring the sustainability of both the community and the reserve is an ongoing effort.

The harmonious relationship between people and wildlife in Kanha Tiger Reserve is based on a collaborative approach to conservation. The local communities are essential partners in preserving the reserve's natural beauty and biodiversity, and they benefit from sustainable livelihoods and eco-tourism. This model demonstrates that it's possible to achieve both conservation and the well-being of local communities when there's a shared commitment to harmonious coexistence.

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