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Exploring Biodiversity: Flora And Fauna Of Pench Tiger Reserve

by Wildlense Eco Foundation 06 Dec 2023

The Pench Tiger Reserve, located in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra in India, is known for its rich biodiversity, encompassing diverse flora and fauna. Here's an overview of the flora and fauna found in Pench:


  1. Teak (Tectona grandis):

    • Teak is one of the dominant tree species in Pench. The park's landscape is characterized by teak-dominated dry deciduous forests. 
  2. Sal (Shorea robusta):

    • Sal trees are common in the moist deciduous and dry deciduous forests of Pench. These trees contribute significantly to the forest canopy. 
  3. Mahua (Madhuca longifolia):

    • Mahua trees are found in abundance. The mahua flowers are an important food source for various animals and are used by local communities for various purposes. 
  4. Bamboo:

    • Bamboo thickets are present in certain areas, providing habitat and food for herbivores.
  5. Terminalia arjuna:

    • This tree species is found along riverbanks and provides habitat for various bird species.
  6. Lannea coromandelica (Indian Ash Tree):

    • This tree species is found in the dry deciduous forests of Pench. 


  1. Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris):

    • Pench is known for its tiger population. The majestic Bengal tiger is the flagship species. 
  2. Indian Leopard (Panthera pardus fusca):

    • Leopards are present in Pench and are adept climbers, often resting on tree branches. 
  3. Indian Elephant (Elephas maximus indicus):

    • While not as commonly sighted as in some other reserves, elephants are present in Pench and are an important part of the ecosystem.
  4. Gaur (Indian Bison):

    • The gaur, or Indian bison, is the largest wild cattle species and is found in the grassy areas of Pench. 
  5. Chital (Spotted Deer):

    • Chital are one of the most common and easily spotted deer species in Pench. 
  6. Sambar Deer:

    • The sambar, a larger species of deer, is also found in Pench. 
  7. Wild Boar:

    • Wild boars are common in the park and play a crucial role in the ecosystem.
  8. Indian Wild Dog (Dhole):

    • Dholes are social wild dogs that hunt cooperatively. They are found in Pench and contribute to the predator diversity. 
  9. Indian Gray Mongoose:

    • Small carnivores like the Indian gray mongoose are part of the park's diverse fauna.
  10. Various Species of Birds:

    • Pench is a birdwatcher's paradise with a variety of avian species, including Indian Pitta, Serpent Eagle, Crested Serpent Eagle and many migratory birds. 
  11. Reptiles:

    • The park is also home to various reptiles, including snakes, lizards and crocodiles.

Pench Tiger Reserve's diverse ecosystems, from deciduous forests to grasslands, support a wide array of wildlife. The park is not only significant for its role in tiger conservation but also for the conservation of overall biodiversity in central India. Visitors to Pench have the opportunity to witness the beauty and diversity of nature in a landscape that inspired one of the most famous works of literature about the jungle.

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